Causes and Consequences of Flooding

An overflow of water that submerges dry land is called a flood. This weather disaster is much destructive to human lives and properties. Fast recovery from the flood is a long-term process, as it requires time for rebuilding the infrastructures and healing the trauma. Many factors lead to floods, including rain, river flow, strong winds, dam breaking, etc.

One of the most flood-prone countries in the world is India. Massive rainfall, deforestation, and climate changes are some causes of flood. In this article, we will discuss the causes, after effects and consequences of flooding.

Types of Floods and Causes

There are different types of floods. Here is a brief description of each of them.

River flooding

River flooding usually occurs over the top of river banks due to rise in the water level, and it happens mainly in rivers and stream channels. Typically, the reasons for this type of flooding is nothing but excessive rains from the tropical storm system, constant thunderstorms, snowmelt and rainfall etc.

Flash flooding

One of the deadly floods is flash flooding, which starts within 6 hours of the beginning of rainfall. The leading cause of this type of flood is severe thunderstorms. Flash floods are hazardous and powerful as they can destroy a vast building and pull out trees quickly. Therefore, it is considered as a long-term damage causing flood.

Inland flood

From the name itself, it is understood that this type of flood does not occur in coastal areas but happens on the land. The principal cause of this flood is heavy rainfall, and Inland flood effects will be more on urban areas as the area doesn’t have space for the water to go.

Coastal flooding

Coastal flooding usually occurs in dry land as a result of waves, tides, storm surge etc. This type of flooding causes both physical and mental health of the people. The three levels of coastal flooding are

  • Minor- Low damage to property
  • Medium- Property damage and life-threatening
  • Major- Significant damage to property and life-threatening

Sewage flooding

The flood occurs due to the heavy rainfall and causing the breaking of the sewage system that releases sewage to the water bodies. This category of flood can cause serious health issues as the water bodies get contaminated by the bacteria. Hence, it causes fever, vomiting, cholera, diarrhoea etc.

Flooding Effects

Flood is usually caused by rainfall, and hence it is a weather disaster. It has a huge capacity to change the infrastructure of land altogether. It can not only cause physical problems but also affects socially and economically. Floods can kill people by destroying their property and lives, and they can also cause lasting trauma for the victims. If the area is a regular flood causing area, people are compelled to migrate from another region, which is a significant loss for the local people.

Each individual itself takes the control measures. Proper vegetation is a must for controlling floods. Instead of cutting trees and destroying the forest, everyone must be encouraged to use vegetation because the effects of flood are devastating. Good town planning is also essential as the engineers should study the area before constructing a building.


It is vital to be aware of natural disasters and their effects as it causes massive damage to the lives and property of human beings. One of the things that we people can do is nothing but conserving natural resources, stop cutting down trees and start saving the vegetation.

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